The theme of the convention “Awareness on the Innovations and Development of Criminology Education in the Philippines” is indeed a noble task to institutionalize advancement and reforms in criminology education through the interface of subjects and topics being presented in this convention.
The topic on the “IMPACT OF SECURITY INDUSTRY IN CRIMINOLOGY EDUCATION IN THE PHIPIPPINES” is a conscious process of study and research in terms of economic complexities of the security industry, legal perspective, education/ training and protection of assets.
The security industry in our country is experiencing tremendous growth. As economy worsens and crimes against individual increases, some company are hiring private protective services because psychologically they may feel that physical hardware and technology may not offer enough protection. This is a foreseen effect of increase demands in security services and hiring of security personnel.
According to statistics with the PNP Security Agencies and Guards Supervision Division (SAGSD); there are more or less 560,000 registered and licensed security personnel; 2,004 Security Agencies and 124 Private Security Training Institutions in the Philippines.
Corollary to these complexities of industrial growth in security services is the statement of recommendations for House Bill no. 420 dated May 11, 1967 on the enactment of RA 5487, “An Act Regulating the Organization and Operation of Private Detective, Watchman or Security Guard Agencies, and among the primer of this Law was the late Cong. Teudolo C Natividad, 2nd district of Bulacan.
“A great number of the personnel of security agencies are being mustered of the unemployed. Operators of said agencies must be accredited for assuming the burden of training and indoctrinating their personnel into useful and dependable citizens and inculcating in them a sense of responsibility, otherwise they would increase unemployment, which is the breeding ground for subversive ideologies.
Given encouragement and supervision, private security agencies would curb lawlessness and encourage the growth of industrialized economy in the Philippines.”
This foreseen growth was envisioned by Randolph D Brock III, Certified Protection Professional, in his topic on “The Guard in Year 2000” (1987) published in the book, “Security 2000 and Beyond”.
“The last 15 years has witnessed continuing evolution of guarding function from watchman of the 19th century to the Security Officer of the late 20th. Some of the more significant and observable changes have included:
- A dynamic increase in the number of women in security officer positions;
- An increase in the average educational level of contract security guards;
- Increased regulations of guards at the state level, both in terms of screening and mandatory training;
- An increase in numbers of both contract and proprietary security guards, at a rate of increase significantly outstripping that of public law enforcement.”
With the advent of this development, many criminology professional launched to private security protection specialist either as Security Officer, Private Detective or Training Administrator having discipline parallel to law enforcement and security.
With this highlights, I submit that there are three (3) primordial issues of concern that transcend the development of Industrial Security that challenged our educational institutions;
- Firstly, the 2003 Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 5487, as amended “ An Act Governing the Organization and Management of Private Security Agencies, Company Guard Forces and Government Security Services;
- Secondly, the Private Security Training System; and
- Thirdly, the new Training Regulations for National Certificate Level I and Level II for Security Services adopted by TESDA and the Security Industry Sector.
Among the new provisions included in the 2003 Implementing Rules and Regulations pertains to a rule on the utilization of security personnel in which the type of services to be provided, such as: Security Post Service, Security Conduction Service, Armored Vehicle Service, Electronic Security System and Services, and the Investigation and Detection Services.
Interestingly, only License Private Detectives can exercise the Investigation and Detection services, which include Personnel Escort/Bodyguard.
Foremost among the provisions, are the qualification for Security Officer, Private Detective and Security Consultant which preferred Criminology graduates as educational entry requirements for positions and issuance of Security Licenses.
The private security training system includes Pre-licensing, periodic and non-periodic training such as In-service and Security Supervisory Courses. Such innovation in the training system for private security personnel was expanded to include specialization courses such as: Intelligence and Investigation, Basic Crises Management, Personnel/VIPs Security, Armored Car Crew Training, Basic Aviation Security, and others. It is indeed an opportunity for our professionals to be part of the training force of these courses in security.
In fact, criminology professionals are in edge for lateral position for Training Director, Training Officer, or Instructors after complying with the accreditation program which is now sanctioned by the Revised Rules and Regulations of RA 5487, as amended. As this develop, the Philippine Association of Registered Security Training Schools Inc., (PARSTS) acquired recognition and accreditation from TESDA and the PNP SAGSD respectively, as Training Institution in the conduct of “Security Trainer’s Training Methodology Course” (STTMC), this is one of the entry requirements for Private Security Training Director, Officers or Instructors.
Another milestone that set Security profession in international market is the recognition of competency based for prior learning and training in security profession.
This is primarily due to the promulgation of the Training Regulations for Security Services NC I and NC II as a basis for the following:
- Registration and Delivery of Training Program
- Development of Curriculum and Assessment Instrument; and
- Establishment of Certification Arrangement
The training regulation is set to provide Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) and provides with information and other important requirements to consider when designing training program for certain qualifications.
This includes information on curriculum design, training delivery, trainee entry requirements, tools and equipment, training facilities and trainer’s qualifications.
This leads to the assessment for individual’s competencies that direct to the issuance of National Certificate (NC) or a Certificate of Competency (COC). The instrument is internationally recognized standards of competency as sanctioned by the International Labor Organization that develops global competitiveness.
The security industry could use this program as an evidence of evaluation for qualification and promotion. Being in the field of law enforcement and security our graduates can be benefited to this certification program.
Incidentally, to upgrade the Technical Education on September 15, 2004 the Office of the President issued an Executive Order No. 358 designed “To institutionalize a ladderized interface between technical vocational education and training (TVET) and higher education” and,
Section 1. The TESDA and CHED in consultation with the concerned sectors and stake holders shall develop and implement a unified national qualification framework that establishes equivalency pathways and access ramps for a ladderized system allowing for easier transitions and progressive between Technical Vocational Education and Training and Higher Education.
Section 2. The framework shall include as far as practicable, but not limited to, the following unified qualification and articulation mechanism: National System of Credit Transfer, Post-TVET Bridging Programs, System of Enhanced Equivalency, Adoption of Ladderized Curricula Program, Modularized Program Approach, Competency-based Program, Network of Dual-Sector Colleges or Universities, Accreditation Recognition of Prior-Learning.
As this develops, the TESDA is now undergoing series of consultations with other sectors and stakeholders of finding ways and means in implementation of this Executive Order. In fact, as member of the Technical Expert Panel on Security Services, seemingly the adoption of ladderized curricula can be bridge with Criminology education.
Our organization PARSTS (Philippine Association of Recognized Security Training School, Inc) are now on the process of adopting a Memorandum of Agreement with other two lead industry sectors the PNP SAGSD and the PADPAO to be part of the National Assessment Board for Security Services.
Lastly, let me cite to my fellow mentors the observation made by Dr. Norman Bottom, President of the Academy of Security Educators and Trainers (ASET) and a professor in the Department of Criminology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, in his topic entitled “Industry Trends Security World” (1987) stated.
“The single most important issue facing security education in the coming decade will be making peace with other educators in the Criminal Justice field. Security is related to, but not identical with Criminal Justice, and that fact has to be established.
Another problem, security will have to face, he said, it’s the fact that there is no formal security institution in the country. Security Certification exists, but the certification is not comparable to that found for an architect, attorney and doctor (I may say even in our field).
To help change that situation, Academy of Security Educators and Trainers (ASET) was examining the possibility of creating some form of security institute within the next three (3) years, with part of its efforts directed at formalizing the Security Industry”.
May I address my recommendation to all the mentors of Criminology Education that we should revisited the subject on Industrial Security being offered in our course. The descriptive contents of the subject on Industrial Security Management which is the only subject dealing on security for three (3) units in one semester retrospect the current trends of the Security Industry and already antiquated to the needs of the profession. The learning outcomes of the subjects should be reviewed as a whole and come out with competent descriptive contents of the modules that covers generally, the framework of security system, the practices, laws on security as an ideal grounds to a more higher level of security education such as security management, supervision, operations and organization. And if the demand necessitates appending units in order to comprehend the contents of the subject.
As a departing word, may I stated the language of George C. Moore, Certified Protection Professional, in his topic on “Developing A Professional Image for the Future “ published also in 1987 in the book entitled “Security 2000 and Beyond” and well known author in Security,
“ If we are not preparing for this need at a fast enough page and should we fall short of demand of our services, we collectively will not be considered professionally responsible. This could slow the growth and acceptance of our profession by our own lack of understanding of the situation. We must not let this happen, we must continually upgrade our knowledge and skills.”
Roger P. Cuaresma
PARTS- President, Manila